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本文搬运自维基百科Alignment词条,有删节。
该条目描述的是描述角色准则的阵营立场。 关于游戏内的派系,请查阅阵营.

在角色扮演设定“龙与地下城”(D&D或DnD)中,九阵营是一种区分玩家角色、非玩家角色和其他生物的伦理道德观的方式。

在1974年的原版龙与地下城中,玩家可以从三种阵营中为自己的角色选择一种:

守序,角色有荣誉感,且尊重社会秩序;
混乱,角色反叛、利己;
中立,角色在两种极端中寻求平衡。


1977年发售的龙与地下城基本包中引入了阵营立场的第二个层价值取向。

善良,角色无私且善待生命;
邪恶,角色自私且漠视生命。
中立,处于两种极端之间。

一个角色(或生物)可以即守序又邪恶(例如暴君),也可以即混乱又善良(例如侠盗罗宾汉)。

此两组价值取向催生出九种阵营,如下图所示:

守序善良 中立善良 混乱善良
守序中立 绝对中立 混乱中立
守序邪恶 中立邪恶 混乱邪恶

功能

Richard Bartle所著的Designing Virtual Worlds一书中提出阵营是角色的分类属性之一,与性别、种族、职业(class)或民族一样。阵营的产生是为了帮助对角色扮演中的行为进行定义,角色的阵营可被视为他们的人生观。玩家在设定阵营时就决定了角色的行为准则,也应当按照该准则进行扮演。[1]

当然,角色的立场也是会变的。一个守序中立的角色如果在可选择中立或邪恶行为的情况下持续做出善举,那么角色的阵营就会逐渐向守序善良偏移。在实际游戏中,地下城主(译者:即游戏主持人,DM)可以主观判断一个行为是否违背该角色的阵营立场。[1]

同一个团体内,角色的阵营立场应当相互兼容。例如,守序善良的角色和守序邪恶的角色在有共同目标的前提下可以共存,但如果再来一个混乱邪恶的角色的话,团队就可能崩溃。Dungeon Master For Dummies的作者发现,一个全是善良或中立角色的团队效率更高:冒险者的动力更足,团队水平发挥更加平稳,也更能“让DND式英雄形象放出光芒”。[2]

坐标轴

守序与混乱

守序与混乱坐标轴的出现早于善良与邪恶。

Originally the law/chaos axis was defined as the distinction between "the belief that everything should follow an order, and that obeying rules is the natural way of life", as opposed to "the belief that life is random, and that chance and luck rule the world".[3] According to the early rulebook, lawful characters are driven to protect the interest of the group above the interest of the individual and would strive to be honest and to obey just and fair laws. Chaotic creatures and individuals embraced the individual above the group and viewed laws and honesty as unimportant. At that time, the rulebook specified that "chaotic behavior is usually the same as behavior that could be called 'evil模板:' ".[3] Neutral creatures and characters believe in the importance of both groups and individuals, and felt that law and chaos are both important. They believe in maintaining the balance between law and chaos and were motivated by self-interest.[3]

在一开始,守序与混乱坐标轴的定义区别是“万物应当有序,遵守秩序是生命的自然法则”与“生命随机生长,机会与运气主宰世界”。在早期的规则书中,守序角色倾向于视团队利益高于个体,且尽可能为人诚实、遵守法律。混乱生物和角色则更为利己主义,认为法律和诚信毫不重要。当时的规则书中指出“混乱的行为几乎可以等同于邪恶行为”。中立生物和角色则认为团队的利益和个人的利益同等重要,守序和混乱亦然。他们会自发地维持二者之间的平衡。

The third edition D&D rules define "law" and "chaos" as follows:[4]

第三版龙与地下城规则书中对守序和混乱的定义如下:

Law implies honor, trustworthiness, obedience to authority, and reliability. On the downside, lawfulness can include closed-mindedness, reactionary adherence to tradition, judgmentalness, and a lack of adaptability. Those who consciously promote lawfulness say that only lawful behavior creates a society in which people can depend on each other and make the right decisions in full confidence that others will act as they should.

守序立场意味着荣誉,正直守信,服从权威,值得依赖。另一方面,守序又意味着保守,固执,具有批判性,以及糟糕的适应能力。推崇守序的人认为只有守序的行为才能创造出自信、互信的社会,从而人们能毫不犹豫地做出正确的选择。

Chaos implies freedom, adaptability, and flexibility. On the downside, chaos can include recklessness, resentment toward legitimate authority, arbitrary actions, and irresponsibility. Those who promote chaotic behavior say that only unfettered personal freedom allows people to express themselves fully and lets society benefit from the potential that its individuals have within them.

混乱立场意味着自由,适应,灵活。另一方面,混乱又意味着鲁莽,仇视权威,独断和缺乏责任心。推崇混乱的人认为只有完全自由的人格才能使人们充分表达自己,从而使社会从个体的获益中获益。

Someone who is neutral with respect to law and chaos has a normal respect for authority and feels neither a compulsion to follow rules nor a compulsion to rebel. They are honest but can be tempted into lying or deceiving others if it suits him/her.

中立立场的人会对权威保持适当的尊重,既不强迫自己遵守法规也不算反叛。他们通常很诚实,但会看情况撒谎。

善良与邪恶

The conflict of good versus evil is a common motif in D&D and other fantasy fiction. Although player characters can adventure for personal gain rather than from altruistic motives, it is generally assumed that the player characters will be opposed to evil and will tend to fight evil creatures.

善良与邪恶的冲突在龙与地下城以及其他奇幻作品中尤为突出。即使玩家可以只为自己的利益参加冒险,但通常角色在面临邪恶时会站在邪恶的对立面。

The third edition D&D rules define "good" and "evil" as follows:[4]

第三版龙与地下城规则书中对善良和邪恶的定义如下:

Good implies altruism, respect for life, and a concern for the dignity of sentient beings. Good characters make personal sacrifices to help others.

善良立场的人无私,尊重生命,并且会为众生的尊严着想。善良立场的角色会牺牲自己帮助他人。

Evil implies harming, oppressing, and killing others. Some evil creatures simply have no compassion for others and kill without qualms if doing so is convenient or if it can be set up. Others actively pursue evil, killing for sport or out of duty to some malevolent deity or master.

邪恶意味着伤害,压迫和杀戮。邪恶立场的生物对他人缺乏同情,说杀就杀,毫无顾虑。有一些人刻意追求邪恶,甚至会以杀戮为乐,甚至崇拜邪恶神祗。

People who are neutral with respect to good and evil have compunctions against killing the innocent but lack the commitment to make sacrifices to protect or help others. Neutral people are committed to others by personal relationships.

中立立场的人对杀戮带有悔意,但也没有舍己为人的觉悟。他们的忠诚只取决于与对方的关系好坏。

Within the game, Paladins, altruistic heroes, and creatures such as angels are considered good. Villains and violent criminals are considered evil, as are inherently evil creatures such as demons and most undead.[4]Animals are considered neutral even when they attack innocents, because they act on natural instinct and lack the intelligence to make moral decisions;[4]In the fifth edition, this is expressed by labeling such beasts as "unaligned".[5]

在游戏中,圣骑士、无私的英雄以及天使等生物通常是善良的,反派、罪犯等通常是邪恶的,正如恶魔和大多数亡灵一样。动物通常是中立的,即使它会攻击无辜者——因为它们是出于自然本能行事,不具备作出道德选择的智力。在第五版规则中,此类生物的立场被定义为“无立场”。

阵营

守序善良

A 守序善良 character typically acts with compassion and always with honor and a sense of duty. Such characters include righteous knights, paladins, and most dwarves. 守序善良 creatures include the noble golden dragons.[5] 守序善良的角色通常具有同情心,荣誉和责任感。此类角色包括正义的骑士,圣骑士,和大多数矮人。守序善良的生物包括金龙。

中立善良

A 中立善良 character typically acts altruistically, without regard for or against lawful precepts such as rules or tradition. A 中立善良 character has no problems with cooperating with lawful officials, but does not feel beholden to them. In the event that doing the right thing requires the bending or breaking of rules, they do not suffer the same inner conflict that a 守序善良 character would.[4] 中立善良的角色通常会做出利他主义的行为,对法律或传统没有特殊立场。中立善良的角色与守序官员合作没什么问题,但不会受制于对方。对于必须破坏规则才能扮成的事,此类角色不会遇到守序善良角色的那种内心冲突。

混乱善良

A 混乱善良 character does what is necessary to bring about change for the better, disdains bureaucratic organizations that get in the way of social improvement, and places a high value on personal freedom, not only for oneself, but for others as well.[4]混乱善良 characters usually intend to do the right thing, but their methods are generally disorganized and often out of sync with the rest of society.[4] 混乱善良的角色会不计代价做出好的改变。他们蔑视妨碍社会运动的权威,认为个人自由高于一切——对于个人和他人都是如此。 混乱善良的角色通常倾向于正确的事,但行事方法无组织,且与整个社会相悖。

守序中立

A 守序中立 character typically believes strongly in lawful concepts such as honor, order, rules, and tradition, and often follows a personal code.[4]Examples of 守序中立 characters include a soldier who always follows orders, a judge or enforcer that adheres mercilessly to the word of the law, and a disciplined monk.[4] 守序中立的角色强烈认同有序概念——例如荣誉,秩序,传统,遵从法规等。守序中立的角色可以是遵守命令的士兵,铁面无私的法官或执法者,或者自律的武僧。

绝对中立

A neutral character (a.k.a. true neutral) is neutral on both axes and tends not to feel strongly towards any alignment, or actively seeks their balance.[4]Druids frequently follow this dedication to balance, and under Advanced Dungeons & Dragons rules, were required to be this alignment. In an example given in the 2nd Edition Player's Handbook, a typical druid might fight against a band of marauding gnolls, only to switch sides to save the gnolls' clan from being totally exterminated.[6] 绝对中立的角色在两个坐标轴上都处于中间位置,他们不倾向于任何一个阵营,或主观上寻求其中的平衡。德鲁伊通常会寻求这种平衡。而在AD&D规则中,德鲁伊必须处于这一阵营。在第二版玩家手册中,一个典型的德鲁伊会攻击豺狼人盗匪,也会在豺狼人全灭前跳反。 Most animals, lacking the capacity for moral judgment, are of this alignment, since they are guided by instinct rather than conscious decision (although in 5th edition animals are "unaligned", not sapient enough to actively make a decision based on alignment, even that of neutrality).[5] 大多数动物都是按照自然本能行事,缺乏做出道德选择的能力,所以属于这一阵营。在第五版规则中,此类动物的阵营将描述为“无阵营”,他们无法做出包括中立在内的任何选择。

混乱中立

A 混乱中立 character is an individualist who follows their own heart and generally shirks rules and traditions. Although 混乱中立 characters promote the ideals of freedom, it is their own freedom that comes first; good and evil come second to their need to be free.[4] 混乱中立的角色是个人主义者,他们倾向于追随自己的内心,通常会逃避规则和传统。尽管混乱中立的角色向往自由,那也是因为他们希望自己先得到自由。善恶对它们来说是次要的。

守序邪恶

A 守序邪恶 character sees a well-ordered system as being easier to exploit and shows a combination of desirable and undesirable traits. Examples of this alignment include tyrants, devils, and undiscriminating mercenary types who have a strict code of conduct.[4] 守序邪恶的角色追求的是易于剥削完美的秩序系统,shows a combination of desirable and undesirable traits.。此类阵营的代表性角色可以是暴君、魔鬼(译者:在DND中魔鬼devil和恶魔demon是两种生物)和管理严格的佣兵等。

中立邪恶

A 中立邪恶 character is typically selfish and has no qualms about turning on allies-of-the-moment, and usually makes allies primarily to further their own goals.[4]A 中立邪恶 character has no compunctions about harming others to get what they want, but neither will they go out of their way to cause carnage or mayhem when they see no direct benefit for themselves. Another valid interpretation of 中立邪恶 holds up evil as an ideal, doing evil for evil's sake and trying to spread its influence.[4]Examples of the first type are an assassin who has little regard for formal laws but does not needlessly kill, a henchman who plots behind their superior's back, or a mercenary who switches sides if made a better offer. An example of the second type would be a masked killer who strikes only for the sake of causing fear and distrust in the community.[4] 中立邪恶的角色通常自私,并且对建立或抛弃“临时的盟友”一事上毫不自责,交友时会首选对自己的目标有益的人。中立邪恶的人对损人利己一事也毫无羞耻感,但损人也只发生在利己的情况下。对中立邪恶的另一个解释是,他们认为恶是一种理念,他们会为了恶而作恶,并且继续散播这种理念的影响。

第一种解释的例子可以是不守法、但也不滥杀的刺客,口蜜腹剑的狗腿子,或者在出价更高的东家之间斡旋的佣兵。第二种解释的例子可以是只为散播恐惧、扰乱社会而杀戮的蒙面杀手。

混乱邪恶

A 混乱邪恶 character tends to have no respect for rules, other people's lives, or anything but their own desires, which are typically selfish and cruel. They set a high value on personal freedom, but do not have much regard for the lives or freedom of other people. 混乱邪恶 characters do not work well in groups because they resent being given orders and do not usually behave themselves unless there is no alternative.[4] 混乱邪恶的角色毫不遵守规则,也不尊重他人的生命,可以说他们只尊重自己的自私而残忍的欲望。他崇尚个人自由,但不尊重他人的生命和自由。混乱邪恶很难团队合作,因为他们讨厌被命令,也不守规矩——除非没有任何其他选择。

扩展阅读

参考资料

  1. 1.0 1.1 wikipedia:Designing Virtual Worlds
  2. Dungeon Master For Dummies
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Dungeons & Dragons: Basic Rulebook (4th ed.).
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 Dungeons & Dragons: Basic Rulebook (4th ed.).
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Dungeons & Dragons Monster Manual (9th ed.).
  6. Advanced Dungeons & Dragons, 2nd Edition, Player's Handbook (2nd ed.).

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